Armed Forces: In 1991 Sudanese People's Armed
Forces (SPAF) totaled approximately 71,500 personnel; army had
about 65,000; air force and Air Defense Command each had about
3,000; navy had about 500.
Major Tactical Units: SPAF organized into six
regional commands having divisional structures. Main units: two
armored brigades, one mechanized infantry brigade, one airborne
brigade, one air assault brigade, seventeen infantry brigades,
three artillery regiments, two antiaircraft artillery brigades,
and one engineering regiment. Strengths of brigades, battalions,
and companies varied greatly. Air force organized into two fighterground
attack squadrons and two fighter squadrons, of which only one
functioning, plus transport squadron, unarmed helicopter squadron,
and training aircraft. Air Defense Command equipped with radar-directed
antiaircraft guns and Soviet SA-2 missiles. Naval forces, under
army command, had some functioning river patrol boats but little
or no capacity to patrol Red Sea coast. Much of armed forces equipment
nonoperational because of poor maintenance and lack of spare parts.
Civil War: Since 1983 armed rebellion has been
conducted by forces of Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) with
estimated strength of 50,000 to 60,000 in 1991. SPLA controlled
most rural areas of south, government forces holding out under
siege conditions in major towns. SPLA armed with light weapons,
shoulder-fired antiaircraft missiles, some artillery and rocket
launchers, and a few armored vehicles. Government forces assisted
by tribal militia groups, which guilty of many atrocities against
civilians in south. Government also organizing paramilitary body
called Popular Defence Forces.
Military Assistance: Most military equipment
supplied by Soviet Union, 1968-71; limited cooperation with Soviet
Union continued until 1977. Egypt and China subsequently became
prominent suppliers. In early 1980s, United States became principal
source of aid, notably aircraft, tanks, armored vehicles, and
artillery. United States aid sharply reduced in 1983 and formally
terminated in 1989.
Defense Costs: Official data unavailable; defense
budget estimated at US$610 million in 1989, constituting 7.2 percent
of gross national product.
Internal Security Forces: National police (Sudan
Police Force) totaled about 30,000. State Security Organisation
main instrument of domestic intelligence and internal security
until 1985. After 1989 military coup, separate Islamic-oriented
security bodies formed to suppress opposition to regime.
Data as of June 1991