Lunda and Chokwe Kingdoms
The Lunda Kingdom lay east, beyond Matamba and Kasanje.
developed in the seventeenth century, and its center was
present-day Zaire's western Shaba Province (formerly
Province). The Lunda Kingdom expanded by absorbing the
neighboring groups in the empire, rather than by deposing
Lunda consolidated their state by adopting an orderly
succession and by gaining control of the trade caravans
through their kingdom.
The Portuguese hoped to deal directly with the Lunda
and thus bypass the representatives of the Matamba and
acted as intermediaries. Apparently entertaining similar
Lunda attacked Matamba and Kasanje in the 1760s. The
however, proved no more successful than the Portuguese at
subduing these Mbundu kingdoms.
The Chokwe, who, according to oral accounts, migrated
either central Africa or the Upper Kasai region in
Zaire, established themselves as trading intermediaries in
Angola in the middle of the nineteenth century. With guns
obtained from the Ovimbundu, they attacked and destroyed
Kingdom in 1900. The Chokwe rapidly expanded their
influence in the
northeast and east, replacing the Lunda culture with their
language and customs.
Data as of February 1989