Administration and Development
Portuguese colonial policies toward civil
first formulated in Mozambique, where in the 1890s António
former minister of colonies, advocated close control and
of African labor, administrative reorganization, and
schemes. In 1899 Paiva Couceiro, who had been with Enés in
Mozambique, published a volume in which he advocated white
colonization, decentralization of administration from
the necessity of inculcating in the Africans the "habit of
As governor general of Angola between 1907 and 1910,
prepared the basis of civil administration in the colony.
officers were to oversee administrative divisions, and
European civilization was to be brought to the Africans.
Couceiro's reforms were incorporated in legislation in
brought, at least in theory, financial and administrative
to the colony.
There was considerable progress toward the development
economic infrastructure during the first quarter of the
century. New towns sprang up in the interior, and road
advanced. The key to development, however, was the
Railway, which would become Angola's largest employer and
linked the mines of the Belgian Congo's Katanga Province
present-day Shaba Province in Zaire) to the Angolan port
In the 1920s, the Diamond Company of Angola (Companhia
Diamantes de Angola -- Diamang), an exclusive
Angola until the 1960s, initiated diamond mining. As the
of more Africans than any other industry, Diamang deeply
the lives of its 18,000 African workers through extensive
investment and the provision of social services.
The Portuguese, however, were generally unable to
Angola with adequate development capital or with settlers.
had fallen off sharply when the rubber boom ended just
War I, and the war itself produced only a brief revival of
trade. At the end of what is commonly referred to as
republican era (1910-26), the finances of the colony were
Data as of February 1989