You are here -allRefer - Reference - Country Study & Country Guide - Hungary >

allRefer Reference and Encyclopedia Resource

allRefer    
allRefer
   


-- Country Study & Guide --     

 

Hungary

 
Country Guide
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belize
Bhutan
Bolivia
Brazil
Bulgaria
Cambodia
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Caribbean Islands
Comoros
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
Georgia
Germany
Germany (East)
Ghana
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Cote d'Ivoire
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Laos
Lebanon
Libya
Lithuania
Macau
Madagascar
Maldives
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
North Korea
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Seychelles
Singapore
Somalia
South Africa
South Korea
Soviet Union [USSR]
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Syria
Tajikistan
Thailand
Turkmenistan
Turkey
Uganda
United Arab Emirates
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yugoslavia
Zaire

Hungary

Council of Ministers

According to the Constitution, the Council of Ministers guided, influenced, and controlled the entire construction of the economic, political, and social system of socialism. The council had primary authority over economic decision making; it developed and implemented the regime's economic plans. Beginning in 1968 with the introduction of the New Economic Mechanism (NEM), an effort to relax central controls over the economy, the Council of Ministers has played a particularly critical role within the political system (see Economic Policy and Performance, 1945-85 , ch. 3).

In 1989 the Council of Ministers consisted of a chairman (the prime minister), two deputy prime ministers, twelve ministers, the chairman of the National Planning Authority, the chairman of the People's Control Committee, and the chairman of the State Planning Committee. The number of ministries has varied over time. In 1989 they included agriculture and food, culture and education, defense, environmental protection and water management, finance, foreign affairs, health and social affairs, industry, internal affairs, justice, communications, construction, and trade. Other agencies also operated under the auspices of the Council of Ministers and in 1989 included the Central Statistical Office, the Hungarian National Bank, the National Price Office, the State Office for Church Affairs, the State Office for Youth and Sports, the Postal Service, and the State Wage and Labor Office.

Although the Council of Ministers devoted primary attention to the economy, according to the Constitution its first responsibility was to "safeguard and guarantee the political and social order of the state and the rights of the citizens." In 1989 other duties included enforcing laws and decree-laws, supporting scientific and cultural development, establishing a system for social and health services, and concluding and approving international agreements. According to Chapter III, Article 34, of the Constitution, a special act of the National Assembly may assign other duties to the Council of Ministers in addition to those described in the Constitution.

In 1989 ministers had no fixed term of office. Ministers served at the behest of the National Assembly and could, upon recommendation of the party, be recalled at any time.

Hungarian political scientist Mihaly Bihari has argued that the Council of Ministers and the ministerial system institutionalized society's economic interests and their representation within the government. The ministerial departments made the most important decisions on the economy because they had the requisite knowledge at their disposal as a result of their day-to-day administration of issues under their jurisdiction. Although the National Assembly and, most often, the Presidential Council issued laws, regulations, and decrees, the ministries developed and selected the suggested proposals. Bargaining among ministries and within the Council of Ministers resolved policy differences on these proposals. All interested ministries had the opportunity to modify these proposals so that it was possible to discern the interests and political demands of the social groupings represented by each ministry.

The People's Control Committee functioned under the direction of the Council of Ministers. The committee supervised a hierarchy of similar committees at the local levels. The Presidential Council appointed members of the People's Control Committee, but volunteers staffed most of the positions at the local levels. The committees oversaw the operations of government organs, social organizations, and economic enterprises to ensure proper management and legality.

Data as of September 1989

Hungary - TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • Government and Politics


  • Go Up - Top of Page

    Make allRefer Reference your HomepageAdd allRefer Reference to your FavoritesGo to Top of PagePrint this PageSend this Page to a Friend


    Information Courtesy: The Library of Congress - Country Studies


    Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities.

     

     

     
     


    About Us | Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy | Links Directory
    Link to allRefer | Add allRefer Search to your site

    allRefer
    All Rights reserved. Site best viewed in 800 x 600 resolution.