Archaeological excavation of sites on the Nile above Aswan has
confirmed human habitation in the river valley during the Paleolithic
period that spanned more than 60,000 years of Sudanese history.
By the eighth millennium B.C., people of a Neolithic culture had
settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mud-brick
villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile
with grain gathering and cattle herding. Contact with Egypt probably
occurred at a formative stage in the culture's development because
of the steady movement of population along the Nile River. Skeletal
remains suggest a blending of negroid and Mediterranean populations
during the Neolithic period (eighth to third millenia B.C.) that
has remained relatively stable until the present, despite gradual
infiltration by other elements.
Data as of June 1991