Turkmenistan has a subtropical desert climate that is severely
continental. Summers are long (from May through September), hot,
and dry, while winters generally are mild and dry, although occasionally
cold and damp in the north. Most precipitation falls between January
and May; precipitation is slight throughout the country, with
annual averages ranging from 300 millimeters in the Kopetdag to
eighty millimeters in the northwest. The capital, Ashgabat, close
to the Iranian border in south-central Turkmenistan, averages
225 millimeters of rainfall annually. Average annual temperatures
range from highs of 16.8°C in Ashgabat to lows of -5.5°C
in Dashhowuz, on the Uzbek border in north-central Turkmenistan.
The almost constant winds are northerly, northeasterly, or westerly.
Data as of March 1996