Government and Politics
Government: Two autonomous republics, Abkhazian
Autonomous Republic and Ajarian Autonomous Republic; one
autonomous region, South Ossetian Autonomous Region. Strong
executive (head of state, who is also chairman of parliament)
with extensive emergency powers in civil war period of 1992-93.
Cabinet of Ministers selected by head of state; power of prime
minister secondary to that of head of state. Unicameral
parliament (Supreme Soviet, 225 deputies) elects head of state
and has legislative power, but is plagued by disorder and
fragmentation. Judicial branch, weak in communist era, under
reform in early 1990s.
Politics: Twenty-six parties represented in
in 1993, of which most seats held by Peace Bloc, October 11 Bloc,
Unity Bloc, Green Party, and National Democratic Party. Shifting
coalitions back individual programs. Reform slowed by influence
of former communists, gradually dispersing. Union of Citizens of
Georgia formed in November 1993 to support Eduard Shevardnadze
government programs. Shevardnadze remained most popular
politician in late 1994.
Foreign Relations: In 1992-94 wide diplomatic
to establish relations with Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) nations, other neighbors, and the West after isolation
created by Zviad Gamsakhurdia government in 1991. Balance
maintained between warring Armenia and Azerbaijan. Joined CIS in
October 1993 after refusing to do so at first, to ensure Russian
aid in ending civil war.
International Agreements and Memberships:
United Nations, Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe,
International Monetary Fund, European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development, and International Bank for Reconstruction and
Data as of March 1994