Table A. Chronology of Important Events
Armenian Empire reaches greatest size and influence under Tigran
Romans complete conquest of Caucasus Mountains region, including
Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Iberia.
Romans conquer Armenian Empire.
Romans annex Azerbaijan and name it Albania.
Tiridates III accepts Christianity for the Armenian people.
King Marian III of Kartli-Iberia accepts Christianity for the
First golden age of Armenian culture.
Four centuries of Arab control of Azerbaijan begin, introducing
Islam in seventh century.
Arabs capture Tbilisi.
Byzantine Empire cedes Armenia to Arabs.
Arabs install Bagratid family to govern Armenia.
Armenian prince Ashot I begins 1,000 years of rule in Georgia by
Second golden age of Armenian culture, under Ashot I and Ashot
Byzantine Greeks invade Armenia from west, Seljuk Turks from
east; Turkish groups wrest political control of Azerbaijan from
Arabs, introducing Turkish language and culture.
David IV the Builder establishes expanded Georgian Empire and
begins golden age of Georgia.
Golden age of Azerbaijani literature and architecture.
Cilician Armenian and Georgian armies aid European armies in
Crusades to limit Muslim control of Holy Land.
Mongols twice invade Azerbaijan, establishing temporary
Cilician Armenia conquered by Mamluk Turks.
Timur (Tamerlane) sacks Tbilisi, ending Georgian Empire
Most of modern Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia become part of
Azerbaijani Safavid Dynasty begins rule by Persian Empire.
Ottoman Turks and Persians divide Georgia between them.
Russia begins moving into northern Azerbaijan as Persian Empire
Herekle II reunites eastern Georgian regions in kingdom of
After Herekle II's appeal for aid, Russian Empire abolishes
Bagratid Dynasty and begins annexation of Georgia.
Georgian Orthodox Church loses autocephalous status in
Treaty of Gulistan officially divides Azerbaijan into Russian
(northern) and Persian (southern) spheres.
Treaty of Turkmanchay awards Nakhichevan and area around Erevan
to Russia, strengthening Russian control of Transcaucasus and
beginning period of modernization and security.
Oil industry established around Baku, beginning rapid expansion.
"Armenian question" emerges at Congress of Berlin; disposition
of Armenia becomes ongoing European issue.
First Armenian revolutionary party formed.
Massacre of 300,000 Armenian subjects by Ottoman Turks.
Radical political organizations begin to form in Azerbaijan.
Young Turks take over government of Ottoman Empire with reform
agenda, supported by Armenian population.
Young Turks massacre 600,000 to 2 million Armenians; most
survivors leave eastern Anatolia.
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia form independent Transcaucasian
federation. Tsar Nicholas II abdicates Russian throne; Bolsheviks
take power in Russia.
Independent Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian states emerge
from defeat of Ottoman Empire in World War I.
Red Army invades Azerbaijan and forces Armenia to accept
Red Army invades Georgia and drives out Zhordania government.
Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic combines
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia as single republic within Soviet
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia become separate republics
within Soviet Union.
Purges under political commissar Lavrenti Beria reach their peak
in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
Autonomy restored to Georgian Orthodox Church.
Western powers force Soviet Union to abandon Autonomous
Government of Azerbaijan, formed in 1945 after Soviet occupation
of northern Iran.
Nikita S. Khrushchev purges Azerbaijani Communist Party.
1969 Heydar Aliyev named head of Azerbaijani Communist Party.
Zviad Gamsakhurdia begins organizing dissident Georgian
Eduard Shevardnadze named first secretary of Georgian Communist
Moscow installs regime of Karen Demirchian in Armenia to end
party corruption; regime later removed for corruption.
Mass demonstrations prevent Moscow from making Russian an
official language of Georgia.
Aliyev of Azerbaijan named full member of Politburo of Communist
Party of the Soviet Union.
Shevardnadze named minister of foreign affairs of Soviet Union
and leaves post as first secretary of Georgian Communist Party.
Mikhail S. Gorbachev initiates policies of glasnost and
perestroika throughout Soviet Union.
Armenian nationalist movement revived by Karabakh and corruption
Nagorno-Karabakh government votes to unify that autonomous
region of Azerbaijan with Armenia.
Disastrous earthquake in northern Armenia heavily damages
Leninakan (now Gyumri).
Soviet troops kill Georgian civilian demonstrators in Tbilisi,
radicalizing Georgian public opinion.
Mass demonstrations in Armenia achieve release of Karabakh
Committee arrested by Soviets to quell nationalist movement.
Azerbaijan begins blockade of Armenian fuel and supply lines
over Karabakh issue.
Azerbaijani opposition parties lead mass protests against Soviet
rule; national sovereignty officially proclaimed.
Nagorno-Karabakh National Council declares unification of
Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia.
Moscow sends troops to Azerbaijan, nominally to stem violence
against Armenians over Karabakh.
Levon Ter-Petrosian of Armenian Pannational Movement chosen
chairman of Armenian Supreme Soviet.
In first multiparty election held in Georgia, Gamsakhurdia's
oppositionist party crushes communists; Gamsakhurdia named
Georgian forces invade South Ossetia in response to independence
movement there; fighting continues all year; Soviet troops invade
Azerbaijan, ostensibly to halt anti-Armenian pogroms.
After referendum approval, Georgian parliament declares Georgia
independent of Soviet Union.
Gamsakhurdia becomes first president of Georgia, elected
directly in multiparty election.
Attempted coup against Gorbachev in Moscow fails.
Armenian voters approve national independence.
Azerbaijani referendum declares Azerbaijan independent of Soviet
Union; Ter-Petrosian elected president of Armenia.
Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh declare independent state as
fighting there continues; Soviet Union officially dissolved.
Gamsakhurdia driven from Georgia into exile by opposition
Shevardnadze returns to Tbilisi and forms new government.
Armenian forces occupy Lachin corridor linking Nagorno-Karabakh
Abulfaz Elchibey elected president of Azerbaijan and forms first
postcommunist government there.
Cease-fire mediated by Russia's President Yeltsin in South
Parliamentary election held in Georgia; Shevardnazde receives
Fighting begins between Abkhazian independence forces and
Georgian forces; large-scale refugee displacement continues
through next two years.
Military coup deposes Elchibey in Azerbaijan; Aliyev returns to
Multilateral negotiations seek settlement of Karabakh conflict,
without result; fighting, blockade, and international negotiation
continue into 1994.
Shevardnadze responds to deterioration of Georgian military
position by having Georgia join Commonwealth of Independent
States, thus gaining Russian military support; Aliyev elected
president of Azerbaijan.
Data as of March 1994