Armed Forces: Article 9 of Constitution
existence of offensive military forces. Self-Defense
numbered about 246,400 in 1992: Ground Self-Defense Force
Maritime Self-Defense Force 44,400, and Air Self-Defense
46,000. Reserves 48,400.
Military Units: Five armies, five maritime
three air defense forces. Main bases in Hokkaido, eastern
central and western Honshu and Shikoku, and Kyushu.
Equipment: Ground Self-Defense Force: medium
reconnaissance vehicles, armored personnel carriers, towed
self-propelled howitzers, mortars, single rocket and
rocket launchers, air defense guns, surface-to-surface
antitank missiles, fixed-wing aircraft, attack
transport helicopters. Maritime Self-Defense Force:
guided missile destroyers, frigates with helicopters,
patrol and coastal combatants, mine warfare ships,
ships, auxiliaries, fixed-wing aircraft, and helicopters.
Air SelfDefense Force: ground attack aircraft, fighters,
aircraft, airborne early warning aircraft, transport
surface-to-air missiles, air-to-surface missiles,
missiles, and air-defense control and warning units.
Military Budget: Approximately US$34.3 billion
year 1992. Efforts made for political reasons to keep
defense expenses at about 1 percent of GNP.
Foreign Military Treaty: Treaty of Mutual
Security with United States (1960); can be revoked on
notice by either party and is updated by minutes
Police Forces: Independent municipal and local
forces, all under supervision of National Police Agency in
National Rural Police at prefectural level.
Data as of January 1994