The Green Book, Part III
In The Green Book, Part III: The Social Basis of the Third
Universal Theory, published in 1980, Qadhafi reiterates and
elaborates his view of nationalism and briefly discusses a few
other subjects. Qadhafi argues that whereas Marx maintained that
class struggle is the crucial variable accounting for change,
it is nationalism that is "the real constant dynamic force of
history." Qadhafi draws a sharp distinction between a state and
a nation or nation-state. A state "embraces several nationalisms,"
and sooner or later will disintegrate as various national movements
clamor for independence or self-determination. A nation-state,
consists of a group of people with a prolonged shared history,
a common heritage, and "a sense of belonging to a common destiny."
Ideally, "Each nation should have one religion," Qadhafi writes,
to avoid the potential for conflicts. He believes that national
unity is threatened by the resurgence of tribal or sectarian identities.
Qadhafi points to the Lebanese civil war as an illustration of
the triumph of sectarianism over nationalism.
Part III of The Green Book also contains a discussion
of such topics as the role of women, minorities, and education.
"There is no difference in human rights between men and women,"
Qadhafi declares. But a woman has "a natural role" that is different
from the male's, namely motherhood. Children should be raised
by their mothers, not sent to nurseries. Furthermore, a woman,
who "is created beautiful and gentle," should not be forced by
economic necessity or by a misguided call for equality to do a
man's work, such as "carrying heavy weights."
With regard to minorities, Qadhafi distinguishes between two
types. One type belongs to a nation that provides it with a social
framework, but also threatens to encroach on its social rights;
the other type has no nation, forms its own social framework,
and is destined eventually to constitute a nation by virtue of
a sense of solidarity.
Qadhafi also gives his radical views of education. Qadhafi condemns
formal education as "an act of dictatorship destructive to freedom
because it deprives people of their free choice, creativity, and
brilliance." He proposes that "all methods of education prevailing
in the world should be destroyed" and replaced with a system where
"knowledge about everything is available to each person in the
manner that suits them."
Data as of 1987