Monument dedicated to the Revolutionary Mongolian
Tank Brigade of World War II
THE RICH MONGOL MILITARY tradition reached its highest point
during the thirteenth century, when a vast empire stretching
across Asia and into Europe was established and sustained by
well-organized, disciplined Mongol cavalry. Although Mongol
political power soon waned, and the empire disintegrated, the
reputation of the prowess of the Mongol cavalry remained well
into the nineteenth century.
Modern Mongolian military practices trace their origin to the
1921 Mongolian Revolution, in which Mongolian rebel forces, under
the leadership of Damdiny Sukhe Bator and Horloyn Choybalsan,
joined with a major detachment of the Russian Fifth Red Army to
defeat Chinese and Russian White Guard forces. This alliance
marked the beginning of a long and close relationship between the
Mongolian and Soviet armed forces.
In the 1930s, Mongolian forces once again joined with Soviet
forces to suppress internal rebellion and to guard their borders
against Japanese incursions. In July and August 1939, Mongolian
armed forces with their Soviet allies accomplished their proudest
feat: defeating Japanese forces and ending Japanese provocations
along the border. Mongolia takes pride in its economic support of
Soviet military forces during World War II and its part in the
August 1945 defeat of Japanese forces in
Manchuria (see Glossary).
Soviet military support greatly increased during the 1960s
and the 1970s, following the Sino-Soviet split and increased
Mongolian concern over the Chinese threat. Although Soviet
military support decreased significantly in the 1980s, when SinoSoviet and Sino-Mongolian relations improved, exclusive defense
ties with the Soviet Union continued, as did Soviet military
training and the acquisition of Soviet military equipment.
In 1989 internal security was maintained by the national
police force, called the militia. The structure of the courts and
the procuraturates was based on the 1960 Constitution, and the
1963 Code of Criminal Procedure set out the rules for their
operation. The 1961 Criminal Code determined which acts were
criminal and the punishment allotted for those crimes, placing
heavy emphasis on crimes against the state and crimes against
socialist ownership. All of these documents were under review and
were expected to be revised or replaced.
Data as of June 1989