Education and Training
The educational level of the Mongolian armed forces compared
favorably with that of the armed forces in most other countries.
All officer and enlisted personnel in the mid-1980s had at least
a secondary education, and many had received a specialized
civilian education. Most officers were educated in the academies
and schools of the Military Institute, an outgrowth of the Sukhe
Bator Military Academy of the 1930s. Among those who were offered
direct commissions were some discharged enlisted personnel with
secondary or higher education, whose enlisted performance was
exemplary, and civilians up to thirty-five years of age who had
expertise useful to the military. Many officers received higher
education and high-level training in the Soviet Union.
In the late 1980s, arms training at individual, small unit,
and combined arms levels was supervised by Soviet instructors and
advisers, or by Mongolian army instructors thoroughly trained in
Soviet army courses. The training met Soviet military standards,
and it was conducted under both winter and summer conditions.
Discharged enlisted personnel with up to two years of active
military service received two months of reserve training every
two years. Those who had more than two years of active military
service received up to two months of reserve training every three
years. Officers who registered in the reserves after completing
their active duty, no matter what the source of their commission,
received up to three months of reserve training every two years.
Soldiers received a thorough political indoctrination. The
technical training required for their military specialty was
related constantly to civilian needs after military service.
Soldiers trained as tank drivers could apply these skills in
civilian life as tractor drivers, and soldiers trained as truck
drivers in the army could be used as civilian drivers. The army
also trained printers and tailors, as well as specialists in
agriculture and animal husbandry.
In the mid-1980s, the Mongolian armed forces instituted major
improvements in the content and methodology of staff, logistical,
and field military training. Tactical training grounds, firing
ranges, tank training grounds, and airfields were mechanized and
automated. Field and training exercises included good-quality
live firings, rocket launches, and operational training flights.
Data as of June 1989