Political scientists frequently characterize Zaire and
African states as "corporatist," manifesting a system in
interest groups are officially sanctioned and
Although corporatism has not been a dominant theme in
Zairian discourse, it is present, notably in the
phrase, "toutes les forces vives" (all the vital forces).
new policy is to be launched, "toutes les forces vives" of
nation or of the region, as appropriate, are called
representatives of the employers, employees, churches, and
In 1991, as Zaire initiated a national conference on
of those held in Benin, Congo, and other French-speaking
states, a new expression arose to refer to interest
society (la société civile), a sociological
originated in the writings of nineteenth-century German
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Data as of December 1993