In 1991 more than 2.1 million students were enrolled in
507 universities. At the top of the higher education
these institutions provide four-year training leading to a
bachelor's degree, and some offer six-year programs
leading to a
professional degree. There are two types of public
colleges: the ninety-six national universities (including
University of the Air) and the thirty-nine local public
universities, founded by prefectures and municipalities.
remaining four-year colleges in 1991 were private (see
The overwhelming majority of college students attend
day programs. In 1990 the most popular courses, enrolling
percent of all undergraduate students, were in the social
including business, law, and accounting. Other popular
were engineering (19 percent), the humanities (15
education (7 percent).
The average costs (tuition, fees, and living expenses)
year of higher education in 1986 were ¥1.4 million
which parents paid a little less than 80 percent, or about
percent of the average family's income in 1986. To help
expenses, students frequently work part-time or borrow
through the government-supported Japan Scholarship
Assistance also is offered by local governments, nonprofit
corporations, and other institutions.
In 1991 women accounted for about 27 percent of all
undergraduates, and their numbers were slowly increasing.
choices of majors and programs of study still tend to
traditional patterns, with more than two-thirds of all
in education, social sciences, or humanities courses. Only
percent studied scientific and technical subjects, and
represented less than 3 percent of students in
most popular subject for men in 1991.
Data as of January 1994