PUBLIC ORDER AND INTERNAL SECURITY
Figure 15. Organization of the National Police Agency, 1989
Source: Based on information from Japan, National Police Agency,
The Police of Japan, 1989, Tokyo, 1989, 10-11.
Policewoman directing traffic in Tokyo
Courtesy Asahi Shimbun
Conditions of public order compare favorably with those
other industrialized countries. The overall crime rate is
North American and West European standards and has shown a
decline since the mid-1960s. The incidence of violent
especially low, owing in part to effective enforcement of
firearms control laws. Problems of particular concern are
associated with a modern industralized nation, including
delinquency, traffic control, and white-collar crime.
Civil disorders occurred beginning in the early 1950s,
in Tokyo, but did not seriously threaten the internal
the state. Far less frequent after the early 1970s, they
all cases effectively countered by efficient and
police units employing the most sophisticated techniques
Japan's the police are an apolitical body under the
supervision of independent agencies, free of direct
government executive control. They are checked by an
judiciary and monitored by a free and active press. The
generally well respected and can rely on considerable
cooperation in their work.
Officials involved in the criminal justice system are
highly trained professionals interested in preventing
rehabilitating offenders. They are allowed considerable
in dealing with legal infractions and appear to deserve
and respect accorded to them by the general public.
Constitutionally guaranteed rights of habeas corpus,
against self-incrimination, and the inadmissability of
obtained under duress are enforced by criminal procedures.
The prison system is generally modern and conducted
viewpoint of resocialization. Prisoners are treated on an
individualized basis, and education is emphasized. Special
attention is given to juvenile offenders, who are normally
separately from adult prisoners. A well-organized parole
probation program employs numerous citizen volunteers.
Data as of January 1994