Cambio '90 only entered the Peruvian political spectrum
early 1990, but by June 1991 it was the most powerful
force in the nation. Cambio's success hinged largely on
success of its candidate for the presidency, Alberto
agricultural engineer and rector of the National Agrarian
University (Universidad Nacional Agrario--UNA) in Lima's
Molina District from 1984 to 1989. Fujimori's appeal to a
extent was his standing as a political outsider.
At the same time, Cambio's success was also attributed
largely to its eclectic political base and its active
campaign. Cambio's two main bases of support were the
Association of Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses
Peruana de Empresas Medias y Pequeñas--Apemipe) and the
sector workers who associated their cause with Apemipe,
evangelical movement. Less than 4 percent of the Peruvian
population was Protestant, but the Evangelicals were
active at the grassroots level, particularly in areas
traditional parties were weak, such as the urban
rural areas in the Sierra. Although Cambio only began
in January 1990, by the time of the elections it had
members in its ranks.
However, Cambio's success at the polls did not
a lasting party machinery. Cambio was much more of a front
political party, and its ability to hold together was
question within a few weeks after attaining power.
bases of support had little in common with each other
opposition to Vargas Llosa. Their links to Fujimori were
recent and were ruptured to a large extent when Fujimori
out of necessity, for an orthodox economic shock program.
than six months into his government, Fujimori broke with
his Cambio supporters, including the second vice president
leader of the Evangelical Movement, Carlos García y
Apemipe. The latter became disenchanted with Fujimori
small businesses were threatened by the dramatic price
opening to foreign competition that the "Fujishock"
Data as of September 1992