Research in Colleges, Universities, and Enterprises
As a consequence of China's adopting the Soviet model for the
organization of science and industry--featuring strict separation
of research, production, and training--little research has been
done in Chinese universities. The State Education Commission has
provided only limited funding to support research, and through the
1980s the scale of research at most colleges and universities has
been very modest. Since 1980 a few academic research institutes
have been established in such areas as computer science. The World
Bank has supported a major effort to increase research in Chinese
universities and to make better use of the scarce skills of faculty
members. On the whole, though, universities have continued to play
only a minor role in scientific research.
Research institutes associated with or organized as constituent
parts of productive enterprises have been quite rare and represent
the smallest of the five systems of research institutes. Only the
largest mines, oil fields, or factories, such as the Anshan iron
and steel complex in Liaoning Province or the Yanshan petrochemical
complex in Beijing, had their own research units, dedicated to
solving immediate problems in production in the late 1980s.
Enterprises concentrated on production, and their managers had
little incentive to take the risks associated with innovation.
Data as of July 1987